Most students begin their studies with whatever style of bow their teacher uses. This is fine. Some people think that the student should be given the choice. However, I’m not sure if the student can make a truly informed decision. There was a great article on choosing a bow in American String Teacher by Dan Swaim. He talks about the length of the students arm impacting bow choice, among other factors. He recommended French style for shorter arms and German for longer arms.
French is easier to teach in a classroom setting because in the public schools because classes are often mixed and basses often get put with cellos. So this saves the educator time. Also many string teachers are not bassists (one reason for this publication) and therefore only know French since this is what the other string instruments use, albeit with slight variations.
When I began playing the bass in high school I was taught with a French bow. I wasn’t even told there was a German bow and didn’t see one until college. I played French bow up until my late twenties and then started learning the German style. Since then I’ve completely switched to German and never looked back.
French tends to be easier to do a spiccato bowing, and for general flexibility. With the German bow, it is very easy to a large sound right away. Endurance is also easier with the German. This is not to say that certain things are not possible with each bow. Both styles can do everything; it’s just some tendencies of each bow. There have been great players who play both styles of bow.
However, do some research first – my teacher (Greg Sarchet of the Lyric Opera) has a hold which is slightly different than most method books. Rather than putting the frog in the crotch of the hand by the frog, rest it at the thick skin at the bass of the fingers. This way it is an extension of the arm and hand. Great flexibility will result.
Tone is easier to produce with the German bow. I find that almost everything is easier with German – keeping the bow straight, accents, etc. and even teaching it to young students is easier! The only issue I had was keeping the stick from bouncing near the tip, but with practice this can easily be overcame.
So, French or German bow? Let the student’s arm and hand (NOT THE STUDENT) decide. Let them try both. Perhaps even teach them both. Rather than force a decision, let a decision emerge as to which style the student should play. My experience has been that German works better for about 70% of students. But I would be doing a disservice to that other 30% if I didn’t let them try French.